Gynaecological examination

Gynaecological examinations as part of prevention are covered by public health insurance once a year (as stipulated by Decree No. 70/2012 Coll. of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, on Preventive Examinations). The check-up includes an examination of the external genitalia and an examination in gynaecological mirrors, where a colposcopic exam of the cervix is first carried out, followed by a cervical smear. For women aged 35, 45 and 55, the presence of HPV is also tested in the cervical smear. Palpation of the uterus and ovaries is performed in all women. If necessary, a rectal examination is also performed. A vaginal ultrasound examination is also an option.

The gynaecologist or general practitioner may refer the woman for a screening mammogram (or inform her about the option of breast self-examination). Women aged 45 and over are eligible for free breast cancer screening tests in an accredited screening centre every two years. For more information about breast cancer screening, please visit the official website of the Czech National Breast Cancer Screening Programme (

The gynaecologist or general practitioner may also prescribe a screening test in the form of a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for patients aged 50–55 years at one-year intervals and for patients over 55 years at two-year intervals. For more information on colorectal cancer screening, please visit the official website of the Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme (

How is the examination done?

Cervical cancer screening is done using the cervical smear test which is taken by your gynaecologist during the preventive examination. This is a simple procedure that only takes about ten minutes and involves little more than a vaginal examination. During the examination, a sample of cells will be taken from your cervix using a small spatula or brush. These cells will be sent to an accredited cytology laboratory, where they will be examined under a microscope to search for any abnormal cervical cells. The results are then sent back to your gynaecologist.

What if I have normal cervical smear result?

Most women will have a normal result. In this case, your risk for cervical cancer is low and you should continue your regular screening (once a year).

What if I have abnormal cervical smear result?

Some women will have an abnormal result. This simply means that some abnormal cervical cells have been found on the cervical smear test; it is very rare for cancer to be detected. Depending on the result, you will be probably advised to have one of the following: (a) another cervical smear in three to six months, (b) a colposcopy, which is a procedure that allows the doctor to examine your cervix more closely. If cervical abnormalities persist, the gynaecologist will decide on possible treatment. This usually requires only a simple procedure that can be done in the hospital gynaecology outpatient clinic. Treatment rarely affects your sex life or ability to have children.

How to make an appointment?

In the Czech Republic, each woman aged 15 years and above is eligible for a preventive gynaecological examination which is covered from the public health insurance once a year. The eligible woman does not need any request form from her GP or other doctor, she can make a direct appointment to her registering gynaecologist, most typically by phone.